Maslow's hierarchy need is a very famous theory in psychology that was proposed by Abraham Maslow in his paper "A theory of Human Motivation" in 1943. He added some points in his theory subsequently.
Abraham Maslow developed a model in which basic low level needs such as food, shelter and safety must be satisfied before higher level needs such as self fulfillment are pursued. Maslow presents a hierarchy of needs which is divided in five phases:
- Self Actualization
Physiological Needs are those required to sustain life, such as air, water, food, sleep, sex etc. If such needs are not satisfied then one's motivation will arise from quest to satisfy them. Higher needs are not felt until one has met the needs basic to one's bodily functioning. After Physiological needs are met, one's attention turns to safety needs and security needs. Such need can be fulfilled by job security, personal security, financial security and health security. These two needs are lower level needs, after achieving these two needs higher level needs become important. First higher need is social needs which include friend, belonging, love etc. Second higher need is Esteem needs which include self respect, achievement, attention, recognition and reputation. Self Actualization needs are the highest need of Maslow hierarchy need. This need is never fully satisfied; as one grows there are always new opportunities to continue to grow. Self actualization needs includes truth, justice, wisdom and meaning.
Maslow also proposed that people who have reached self-actualization will sometimes experience a state he referred to as transcedence in which they become aware of not only their own fullest potential, but the fullest potential of human beings at large. He described this transcendence and its characteristics in an essay in the posthumously published The Farther Reaches of Human Nature.
Maslow's theory of human needs draws strongly on the pioneering work of Heney Murray (1938). This provides the basis for wide-ranging and extensively validated work relating to achievement, affiliation, power and ambition. "We move toward self actualization". This quote brings in Maslow's theory of motivation, tying along with the growth, happiness and satisfaction of every person. He believes to be motivated that it is not driven by reducing tension or avoiding frustration that people look for a positive view.